by Tena Starr
NEWPORT — About 75 percent of the people in Orleans and northern Essex counties are either overweight or obese. Thirteen percent of 12- to 19-year-olds are considered obese, as well as 11 percent of kids under five.
In the state as a whole, 28 percent of children and 58 percent of adults are either overweight or obese. The rate of obesity in the Newport area is 31 percent, the worst in the state.
Those are some of the alarming statistics presented at Saturday’s filming of Weight of the Nation, an HBO documentary that tackles the challenges associated with the country’s growing rate of obesity, as well as the history of America’s weight problem.
The morning’s events, which included the movie, a brief discussion about what can be done, and a story walk and healthy snacks provided by Meghan Stotko and the Lunch Box, was organized by prevention specialist Jennifer Woolard at the health department’s Newport office.
Ms. Woolard said she hoped to start a conversation about how to have a healthier community. Orleans County is the unhealthiest in the state, she said.
The reason for that perhaps mystifies Ms. Woolard, who noted that the area has parks, community gardens, sidewalks, good grocery stories, farmers markets, and bike paths. It also has woods and fields, lakes and streams, and a thriving local food movement.
In other words, people in the Northeast Kingdom have access to both healthy food and ways to burn off calories.
That can’t be said of other parts of the country, inner cities, for instance, where children have no place to safely engage in physical play. But it’s certainly true in the Northeast Kingdom, where many can just walk out the front door in order to ride a bike or go for a walk in a safe neighborhood.
The rate of Vermonters who don’t get enough physical activity is 17 percent, says the health department. In this area, it’s 27 percent.
Ms. Woolard said she doesn’t have the answer; she simply set out to start a discussion and to offer information. “We want to make it community driven, we don’t want to tell people what to do,” she said.
That was the message of the day.
“Today is not about blame or shame,” said Jim Burnett, director of the district health department in Newport. “But we are not immune from the struggle of dealing with overweight and obese. We are, sadly, on a trajectory, where maybe for the first time, our children may have a shorter life span than their parents.”
About 30 people attended the event, which was held at Waterfront Cinemas.
Access to both good food and ways to engage in physical activity are factors in the nation’s struggle with an increasingly overweight population, but so is income, and that might be the key to figuring out why one of the most rural areas of Vermont also has the highest percentage of overweight people.
The highest rates of obesity are among lower income Vermonters, according to the health department. And Orleans and Essex counties are the poorest in the state, according to U.S. Census data.
The film, done in collaboration with the Institute of Medicine among others, is a captivating tour of human biology, U.S. food policy, and small steps that have been taken throughout the country to initiate change.
While it doesn’t abdicate personal responsibility, it does point out that obesity became epidemic in the country in the past 30 years for reasons that often go beyond personal choice.
When the U.S. government started keeping track, in 1900, of why people died the three main causes were pneumonia as a result of influenza, tuberculosis, and diarrhea.
Today, five out of ten untimely deaths are related to being overweight, according to the film. Two-thirds of Americans are either overweight or obese, which leads to diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, sleep apnea, heart trouble, and pain.
While the natural tendency is to look at the situation as a lifestyle choice, biology says the behavior was laid down a long time ago. “Biology plays as much a role as psychology,” says one doctor in the movie.
For one thing, people aren’t genetically programmed to turn down calories. Human DNA is programmed to ward against scarcity: If food is available, eat it, and human DNA hasn’t changed much in thousands of years. It certainly hasn’t changed in the last 30 years, although lifestyles have changed dramatically.
The audience laughed when the film pictured cavemen devouring a wild pig. You really wouldn’t expect people of that time to take two bites and say I’m full now, says the narrator. Humans are genetically programmed to eat what’s available while it’s available, she says.
And for thousands of years that worked out just fine since food wasn’t reliably plentiful, and it took a certain amount of effort to acquire it.
That’s the biology in a nutshell: People are designed for a world of scarcity where food is not easily available, and it takes a substantial expenditure of energy to get it. Humans are programmed to survive in a hunter gatherer world that no longer exists, at least in most cultures.
Enter agriculture. Humans became farmers. And, historically speaking, shortly after that, industrialized agriculture developed, at least in the U.S. By the early twentieth century, the federal government had made cheap, plentiful food a priority. But what to do with it?
What’s followed is a glut of corn and soy in the U.S., the film asserts, a glut that’s subsidized and is used to produce cheap, and unhealthy, food: beef fed by cheap grain, sodas sweetened by cheap corn syrup, cookies, crackers, and snack foods that pack a high caloric punch and little nutrition. The food the nation produces in mass quantities is inexpensive compared to fruits and vegetables, which receives no government subsidies.
It gets worse.
Humans became sedentary. Instead of cultivating crops or doing other manual labor, they began to sit in front of screens, more and more screens all the time. In fact, Americans are using less calories per day than in 1970, but consuming more.
And then came marketing.
Obesity goes up as income goes down, the film says. In part, that’s because people are programmed to acquire as many calories as possible for the dollar. The dollar menu at a fast food restaurant is a lure for poor families because it saves time, and it saves money.
The film goes on to note these grim numbers: The profit margin for a soft drink is 90 percent. The profit margin for fruits and vegetables is 10 percent. Naturally, companies being in the business of making money, heavily market their most profitable products.
On the more sinister side, perhaps, is the fact that the federal government subsidizes the corn and soy industries, encouraging further production of cheap, but unhealthy, food. The government is driving farmers, who are also interested in making a living, to overproduce food that isn’t good for the country as a whole, the movie says.
“The kind of food we eat is the kind that’s most profitable,” one analyst flatly says. Another says it would cost the food industry between $36- and $40-billion a year if Americans cut 100 calories a day out of their diet.
Remarkably, the film says that this country doesn’t even produce enough fruits and vegetables to meet the dietary needs of its citizens.
A brief discussion, led by Dr. Alan Rubin, followed the movie. Some mourned the loss of IROC, which provided indoor recreation facilities. Others mentioned what is available in the way of opportunities for exercise, which the area doesn’t lack.
Those who are interested in furthering the discussion are encouraged to contact the Healthworks Coalition at [email protected].
contact Tena Starr at [email protected]
To read the Chronicle’s editorial on this subject, click here.